Push and Pull factors of Cuban Migration

Push Pull Factors

Definition of Push and Pull factors of Cuban Migration to America
This article explains the Push and Pull factors of Cuban Migration to America for kids. What are Push and Pull Factors that relate to Cuba and what do they mean?

The push and pull definitions are as follows:

  • Push factors are the reasons why people left Cuba, such as persecution, fear, natural disasters, poverty and unemployment
  • Pull factors are the reasons why people moved to the United States of America in search of freedom, safety, stability and new opportunities

Push and Pull factors of Cuban Migration to America for kids: Political, Economic, Social & Environmental Reasons
The push and pull factors of Cuban Migration are dictated by economic, political, environmental and social reasons. Discover specific events in the history of Cuba that prompted Cuban people to leave their homes to start a new life in America. The majority of Cuban migrants moved from Cuba to the United States of America for political reasons. The first migrants fled from Cuba in the early 1800's due to the oppressive rule of the Spanish. The communist regime in the mid 1900's led to the Cuban migration of mostly wealthy and influential Cubans. The latter Cuban immigration of the modern era consists of many poor, unskilled workers who move to America leave poverty in Cuba seeking better employment prospects, a better lifestyle and greater wealth in America.

Push and Pull factors of Cuban Migration for kids: Examples of Cuban Migration Chart
The following chart provides facts and information about some specific examples of Push and Pull factors of Cuban Migration to America.

Examples of Push and Pull factors of Cuban Migration to America

List and Examples of Push Factors

Political Factor: Cuba was subject to the Spanish rule and the first Cuban exiles or migrants fled the political autocracy of Spain to the United States of America in 1823.

Political Factor: Spain increased taxes and their autonomy increased as they prevented any Cubans holding a position in government. Spain also established the 'reconcentrado' policy (concentration camp system) against Cuban rebels.This led to a  series of Cuban revolts: The Ten Years' War (1868–1878), Little War (1879–1880) and the Cuban War of Independence (1895–1898

Political Factor: The Spanish-American War (April 25, 1898 – August 12, 1898) erupted in 1898 caused by the strict Spanish policies in Cuba and the struggle for Cuban independence from Spain. The 1898 Treaty of Paris by which Cuba became independent from Spain and the Spanish agreed to remove all soldiers from Cuba.

Environmental Factor: The 1932 Cuba earthquake caused devastation in which over 1500 people died and resulted in the loss of many homes.

Political and Economic Factor: In 1959, Fidel Castro and his Communist regime took over Cuba. In 1960 all US businesses in Cuba were nationalised without compensation.

Economic Factor:  The economic conditions imposed by the Communist region worsened

Political and Social Factor : Various laws had been passed in the United States to restrict the numbers of immigrants. The Hart-Cellar Act passed in 1965 lifted origin by nation restrictions on immigration

Environmental and Social Factor: The harsh policies of Fidel Castro increased leading to imprisonment and detainment in mental institutions

Economical and Political Factors: 1989 saw the end of the Soviet Union’s economic aid to Cuba and this, together with the U.S. trade embargo, economic hardship for many Cubans.

Environmental Factor: In 2008 Hurricanes Gustav and Ike inflicted the worst storm damage in the history of Cuba. The hurricanes caused $5bn (£2.8bn) of damage, affecting nearly 450,000 homes with over 200,000 people left homeless

List and Examples of Pull Factors

The first Cuban migrants were wealthy and established new lives in Miami and other areas of Florida where they enjoyed freedom from the Spanish. The Cuban migrants hoped that the US would annex Cuba and in 1848 President Polk offered Spain $100 million for Cuba but it was refused

Cuban migrants fled violence and political conflict and persecution to the safety of America

The treaty placed a condition on the US military's presence in Cuba whereby the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave the "control of the island to its people." America was seen as a supporter of Cuba and many migrants moved to the US to join other Cuban exiles.

Wealthy Cubans emigrated to the United States of America for a safer and more stable and secure future.

Between 1959-1960 250,000 Cuban migrants fled the Communist regime for the freedom from political persecution and safety of America seeking a better quality of life and new employment

Cuban immigrants between 1965-1973 totalled 300,000 to escape the economic constraints of Communism

Some people took the opportunity joined friends and family who had established new lives in the United States.

People left Cuba to the safer environment of America and to join their friends and family who had settled in America.

Another wave of Cuban immigrants seized the opportunity to build a new life and gain new employment and a better standard of living in America.

Cubans emigrated to the United States to build new lives and homes


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Updated 2018-01-01

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